Valuing Contingent Value Rights in Life Sciences Transactions
Contingent value rights (“CVRs”) remain popular instruments in life sciences transactions to help bridge the valuation gap between buyers and sellers. In life sciences transactions, CVRs are typically structured such that the holder receives either a lump sum cash payment or shares of stock once a specific milestone is hit. Common milestones include achieving specified clinical results, receiving regulatory approvals, and hitting specified sales targets. Because accounting standards often require holders of CVRs to carry them at fair value, determining their fair value in a reasonable, supportable manner is critical.
Valuing CVRs in the life sciences industry can be a complex process due to the inherent uncertainty associated with the development and commercialization of new drugs, therapies, and medical devices. However, there are several valuation techniques that can be used to estimate the fair value of CVRs, and the choice of technique will depend on the specific facts and circumstances of each transaction.
Key Factors in Valuing CVRs
Several factors play a crucial role in determining the value of CVRs in life sciences:
- Probability of Achieving the Milestone
- Magnitude and Structure of the Payout
- Time to Payment
- Risk of Nonpayment
Challenges in Valuing CVRs
Valuing CVRs in life sciences presents several challenges:
- Uncertainty of Success: The inherent uncertainty in the development and commercialization of life sciences products makes it difficult to accurately predict future cash flows.
- Lack of Market Data: The limited number of CVR transactions and the lack of a centralized market make it challenging to establish reliable valuation benchmarks.
- Data Sensitivity: Valuation models are highly sensitive to input parameters, requiring careful consideration of data quality and assumptions.
- Subjectivity of Estimates: Despite advancements in valuation techniques, there remains a degree of subjectivity in estimating the fair value of CVRs.
- Evolving Regulatory Landscape: The dynamic nature of regulatory requirements in life sciences can impact the likelihood of achieving CVR milestones.
Despite these challenges, CVRs continue to be a valuable tool in life sciences deals, providing a mechanism to bridge valuation gaps between buyers and sellers. As such, it’s critical to understand and manage the economic and financial reporting considerations inherent in their use.
Common Valuation Techniques for CVRs
Various valuation techniques can be employed to estimate the fair value of CVRs in life sciences, each with its own strengths and limitations:
- Monte Carlo Simulation: This technique involves simulating various scenarios and their probabilities to estimate the expected value of the CVR payout.
- Option Pricing Models: Models like Black-Scholes-Merton can be used to value CVRs by considering their option-like characteristics.
- Decision Tree Analysis: This approach involves constructing a decision tree to represent the possible outcomes and their probabilities, leading to an expected value for the CVR.
- Market Comparable Analysis: Comparing CVRs from similar transactions can provide insights into their valuation multiples.
- Real Options Analysis: This technique considers the flexibility embedded in CVRs, such as the option to delay or defer payouts, to enhance their valuation.
The choice of valuation technique must be tailored to the specific characteristics of the CVR, and different techniques might be employed for different milestones in the same CVR.
How Centri Can Help
Centri’s valuation specialists can advise buyers and sellers on the fair value of any CVRs included within the purchase price of the deal as well as the range of expected value within a given confidence interval to better understand the balance sheet impact and assist with deal negotiation. Furthermore, in partnership with the technical accounting teams, Centri assists in the financial reporting of the business combination, including technical accounting memos, preparation of the closing/opening balance sheet and walk across files, determination of the fair value of purchase consideration, and allocation of purchase price to assets acquired and liabilities assumed. This ensures a smoother, more efficient acquisition process. Contact us to learn more.
Partner | Valuation Practice Leader
Jerry is a Partner at Centri Business Consulting and the leader of the firm’s Valuation Practice. He has more than 20 years of valuation experience and has analyzed and valued companies for numerous purposes, participating in a...
Partner | Life Sciences Practice Leader & Raleigh Market Leader | CPA
Ryan is a Partner at Centri Business Consulting, leader of the firm’s Life Sciences Practice & Raleigh Market Leader. He has more than 25 years of public and private accounting experience. He joined Centri in...
Managing Director | CFA
Charles is a Managing Director at Centri Business Consulting. He has more than 25 years of experience in providing fairness and solvency opinions in connection with going private transactions, spin-offs, related-party transactions, recapitalizations, and restructurings. He...
About Centri Business Consulting, LLC
Centri Business Consulting provides the highest quality advisory consulting services to its clients by being reliable and responsive to their needs. Centri provides companies with the expertise they need to meet their reporting demands. Centri specializes in financial reporting, internal controls, technical accounting research, valuation, mergers & acquisitions, and tax, CFO and HR advisory services for companies of various sizes and industries. From complex technical accounting transactions to monthly financial reporting, our professionals can offer any organization the specialized expertise and multilayered skillsets to ensure the project is completed timely and accurately.
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